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Resurrection by Leo Tolstoy: Review, summary, analysis and notes

Discover Leo Tolstoy's 'Resurrection' in this review, exploring its themes, characters, and profound moral insights.

The novel "Resurrection" (1889-1899) is Tolstoy's masterpiece in his later years, and the plot is based on real cases. 

The aristocratic young man Nekhlyudov seduced the adopted daughter of his aunt, the peasant girl Katyusha Maslova, causing her to become a prostitute; but when she was falsely accused of murder for money, he attended the court trial as a juror. 

This seemingly coincidental event had typical social significance at the time. On the one hand, the novel presents the representative themes of the author's later years - spiritual awakening and running away from home; on the other hand, it mainly uses Nekhlyudov's experience and knowledge to show the dark side of society from cities to rural areas, and to the government, courts, prisons, churches, The private ownership of land and the capitalist system were deeply criticized. 

However, the later part of the work gradually highlights the preaching of not using violence to resist evil and self-cultivation. Tolstoy's strengths and weaknesses are most concentrated and vividly expressed here.

Book: Resurrection Leo Tolstoy

Resurrection, first published in 1899, was the last novel written by Leo Tolstoy. The book is the last of his major long fiction works published in his lifetime. ——Wikipedia

    • Originally published: 1899
    • Author: Leo Tolstoy
    • Genres: Novel, Philosophical fiction, Political fiction
    • Language: Russian
    • Original title: Воскресеніе

Resurrection by Leo Tolstoy

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About the Author: Leo Tolstoy

Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (ЛевНиколаевич Толстой) (1828~1910) was the greatest Russian writer in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and one of the most outstanding writers in the history of world literature. His literary works occupy an important position in world literature. 

His representative works include the novels "War and Peace", "Anna Karenina", "Resurrection" and the autobiographical novel trilogy "Infancy", "Youth" and "Youth". 

Other works include "Morning of a Landlord", "Cossacks", "Sevastopol Stories", etc. He also created a large number of fairy tales. 

With his lifelong hard work, he reached the peak of European critical realism literature at that time. 

He also worked hard to create "first-class works in world literature" with his powerful brushstrokes and excellent artistic skills. 

Therefore, he was praised by Lenin as a "genius artist" with "the soberest realism".

Tolstoy's thoughts are full of contradictions. This contradiction is a reflection of the complex contradictions in Russian society. 

It is the reflection of sobriety and weakness, struggle and hesitation, cry and depression in the pursuit of a new life by an aristocratic intellectual with a sense of justice. Vivid portrayal. 

Even though Tolstoy's works contain reactionary and utopian elements, they are still the pride of the world's progressive mankind. 

He has been recognized as a literary figure all over the world. Leo Tolstoy was called "the mirror of the Russian Revolution" by Lenin.

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Original Excerpt

There is an extremely common and extremely common fatalistic argument, which believes that everyone has an unchanging nature, some are kind, some are vicious, some are smart, some are stupid, some are passionate, some are indifferent, and so on. In fact, people are often not like this. When we talk about a person, we can say that he is kind more often than he is evil, more intelligent than stupid, more enthusiastic than indifferent, or just the opposite. It would be wrong to say that one person is kind or smart and another person is vicious or stupid. However, we always classify people in this way, which is untrue. People are like rivers. The water in all rivers is the same, and the water is the same everywhere. But the water in every river is narrow in some places, wide in some places, rapid in some places, flat in some places, and clear in some places. , some places are turbid, some places are cool, and some places are warm. So it is with people. Everyone has embryos with various natures. Sometimes they show one kind of nature, sometimes they show that kind of nature, and sometimes they change beyond recognition, but they are still the same person. The changes in some people are particularly dramatic. Nekhlyudov was of this type. Some of these changes are due to physiological reasons, and some are due to mental reasons. Nekhludoff was now undergoing this change. ——Quoted from page 164

Short Comment

A masterpiece like a god. A great writer never just gives people a novel with a compact and ups and downs plot. 

His pen leaves readers with constant reflection and helps readers like me broaden their narrow horizons. 

I don’t know if Tolstoy’s Russia is suitable for explaining other countries, but I am 100% sure that the social problems pointed out by Tolstoy in “Resurrection” are 100% appropriate for modern people. I dare not say that "Resurrection" is timeless.

Book Review

Leo Tolstoy is revered by the Chinese as a master of realism, but they believe that his books have always been full of "absurd" things similar to existentialism.

    People are not absurd, and the world is not absurd, but the relationship between people and the world constitutes a kind of absurdity. This is vividly shown in "Resurrection".

    Why did Katyusha become a prostitute? Because I was tempted by pure love when I was young.

    Why was Katyusha not guilty but had to be sentenced to hard labor? Just because of a literal oversight by the jury.

    Why do so many innocent people stay in jail for so long? Ah, they were only temporarily detained at that time, but soon the officers forgot about it, so they stayed here all the time.

    In the process of running for Katyusha, Nekhludoff was constantly aware of the absurdity of the human world. No matter the upper class or the lower class, they were surrounded by this ubiquitous absurdity: no one knew what they were doing, I just knew I "should" do it, so I did it. Countless "loyalties" to superiors, traditions, and life itself form a huge and absurd world.

    However, Tolstoy's vision went beyond this. He saw another kind of breakdown in the relationship between people: no one can save anyone.

    Nekhludoff wanted to save Katyusha's body and soul by saving her from torture, and at the same time save his own body and soul. 

This complicated relationship between saving and being saved made Nekhlyudov cling to Katyusha tightly, and he was even willing to marry Katyusha out of morality rather than love.

    He suddenly realized that he was willing to be noble, but he couldn't do without a comfortable social life. 

He longed for a normal family life (these lives did not mean being humble, but definitely meant a compromise with absurdity). 

It was not that he was unwilling to become better. , but he couldn't decide what was better. 

In the process of following Maslova in exile, Nekhludoff traveled between the upper class and the lower class countless times, and his judgment became increasingly blurred: there are also people with high moral character in the upper class, and many people in the lower class are "moral." corrupt". 

Nekhludoff believed that those people should not bear the sole responsibility for their own moral failings, but who should bear the responsibility? Is it an illusory "system"?

    Throughout the entire process of exile, Nekhludoff and all kinds of people discussed this question: Who is qualified to judge criminals?

    This almost brings people back to the beginning of the story, the scene where Maslova was tried: the lives of the superior judges are full of dirty things such as adultery and bribery. Why do they serve as symbols of fairness and justice? Trial the defendant?

    But if no one is qualified to judge others, then who can uphold justice and uphold morality?

    When Katyusha told him that she was willing to marry Simonson, Nekhludoff suddenly found that his noble behavior had suddenly lost its purpose. 

He suddenly discovered that he had never and would never save Katyusha because I didn't have such qualifications or power. 

He didn't even have this intention - the so-called saving Maslova was not really out of sympathy, but just to escape from his past life and find noble reasons for himself.

    Nekhludoff suddenly realized that he was trying to use another absurdity to correct the original absurdity of the world.

    The story takes a sudden turn here. Nekhludoff picked up the "Gospel", and Tolstoy used Nekhludoff's mouth to explain his various ideas involving religious views in large sections.

    This is almost a question that a wise man has no choice but to ask.

    For example, Newton finally devoted himself to the study of "God's thrust", and Lu Xun repeatedly expressed his doubts and worries about the future world.

    They know that the world should not be like this, but they don’t know what the world should be like.

    Regarding the universe and the world, everyone can only know what it is, but not why.

    Nekhludoff's awakening is powerless, and Tolstoy also realizes the powerlessness of this "resurrection": in the last chapter, the storyline is downplayed, the didactic meaning is prominent, and Nekhludoff's awakening appears... It is illusory and has no basis.

    Tolstoy said: Yes, we should be noble, but no one knows what being noble is and why we should be noble.

    Everyone is Nekhludoff.

    It is not that we have never had noble and awakening moments, but after this moment of awakening, there is endless doubt and pain.

    "He who is without sin among you, let him first throw a stone at her." This is actually an inescapable dilemma and tragedy.

Book Summary

There was a time when I often passed by Lin Juemin’s former residence next to Nanhou Street in Fuzhou. 

I would like to think about what motivated Lin Juemin to abandon his wife and home to join the revolution? To build a Lin family mansion of this size in such an area today would cost hundreds of millions, which was not a small sum at that time. 

Such a wealthy family, in any case, belongs to the "vested interest" class, so why should they throw their lives and blood? If Lin Juemin hadn't really sacrificed his life for justice later, I would even viciously think that "A Letter to My Wife" was just a beautiful lie. In today's era, don't we see enough beautiful words?

Therefore, it is particularly difficult for people like me to read "Resurrection". In 1999, I bought "Resurrection" from the People's Literature Publishing House at a used bookstall. 

I opened it several times and looked at the bearded portrait of Tolstoy on the title page. I felt it was quite heavy, and then I closed it. 

In 2002, I finally had the courage to read it, but I didn't leave any impression. Maybe it was because I was blind to what was going on outside the window at that time and was absorbed in the distant, quiet, and indifferent mood of Chinese classical literature. 

In the past few years, the world has been turned upside down, and all kinds of chaos have come before our eyes, causing countless confusion and incomprehension in our hearts. 

I finally made up my mind to read "Resurrection" carefully. Originally, two or three days would be enough for 400,000 words, but this time, it took two weeks.

The plot of "Resurrection" is actually very simple. Ten years ago, Nekhludoff once loved Maslova sincerely. 

Seven years ago, he took possession of her, left her a hundred rubles, and left. This is indeed what Engels said: "an old and old story of a proletarian girl being seduced by a bourgeois man."

But great writers can start different soul adventures in clichéd stories. Seven years later, Nekhludoff sat in the jury seat, and Maslova, a prostitute, stood in the trial seat, accused of murder. Nekhludoff recognized Maslova but was afraid of being recognized by her. 

Later he realized his sin and decided to atone for it by marrying Maslova. However, Maslova did not accept his favor. She said:

"It's not just that you are taking pleasure in me in this earthly life, you also plan to use me to save yourself in the world after death."

I read While reading this paragraph, I deeply felt Maslova’s helplessness and grief. When the dignitaries were reciting poems and composing poems on the stage, or trying to establish a moral archive for the whole people, I also felt Maslova's helplessness and grief. 

These powerful people naturally have the advantages of money and power, but they actually want to have the advantages of culture and morality. Like the former Duke Nekhludoff, they sat on the bench to judge the people they had insulted and harmed. 

In fact, they knew in their hearts who really should be judged. Otherwise, when they lost power, they would not lament, "Fortunately, history is written by the people." 

Therefore, I don’t understand Lin Juemin because, in today’s era, we have seen many hypocrites who talk about benevolence, justice, and morality but actually steal the country, but I have never seen or heard of a person who can bravely abandon vested interests and seek benefits for the world. people. 

Maybe Lin Juemin's era is too far away from us? But what is certain is that deep down in my heart, I am also a stubborn "vested interest" person. ——Although he has always been at the bottom of the food chain, he still holds his job carefully, for fear of being smashed. 

Therefore, when I saw Nekhludoff sincerely repent and distribute the land of his father, mother, and aunt to the peasants without reservation, I felt such pity. Obviously, I am not Lin Juemin, nor Nekhludoff, but more like Maslova before her resurrection.

In the courtroom, Maslova glanced at Nekhlyuzov but did not recognize him. The suffering was so deep and heavy that Maslova had long forgotten the person who was most directly responsible for this suffering. 

Later, when Nekhludoff visited the prison for the first time, Maslova only thought of asking him for ten rubles to buy a drink. Haven’t we applauded, cheered, and raised our hands in the audience countless times, and then we were eager to get a little benefit?

"Resurrection" is just such a book. After opening "Resurrection", Tolstoy caught us off guard and forced us into a corner, and then directly asked: Are you guilty? Are you planning to atone for your sins? How do you plan to atone for your sins? In the face of this kind of questioning, even if we choose to run away, the true weight of the "resurrection of the soul" deep in our hearts has been fully revealed. 

When Nekhludoff planned to bid farewell to his old self and welcome a new life, Maslova did not understand it, and his noble friends did not understand it either. 

But in the days of running for Maslova, he realized it even more The existence and taste of "privilege", as long as he relaxes a little, he can return to the land of gentleness and wealth. However, Nekhlyudov still chose not to look back. 

Because at that time, the "resurrection of the soul" was already the entire meaning of his life, and all the things of the past were just baggage on the way forward. Only by completely throwing them away could he stride toward a new life.

For Nekhlyudov, on the one hand, he wanted to save himself by saving Maslova; on the other hand, the suffering of Maslovas also awakened his responsibility and responsibility as a human being. Maslova, on the other hand, did not actively seek the resurrection of her soul at the beginning. 

She fell into the swamp of fate, struggling, drowning, struggling again, and drowning again. Talking about the soul seems a bit broad to a person who is struggling for basic survival. But Nekhludoff stretched out his hand and awakened her soul that was sleeping due to embarrassment. 

At the same time, the thoughts and behaviors of those revolutionary saints in prison and exile also infected her - it turns out that in the swamp, you can also look up the starry sky. She finally rejected Nekhludoff, which meant that she no longer needed his salvation in her soul. 

She was resurrected and had complete and independent dignity, responsibility, and love. This reminds me of a metaphor from Fan Zhen in the Southern Dynasties. He said that everyone's destiny is just like the flowers falling from the tree. 

Some touch the curtain and fall on the mat, while some get in the way of the fence and fall to the side of the dung. Therefore, the rich, the poor, and the poor have their own differences. different. 

Yes, the fate of people on the earth is just blown away by the wind. Wealth and poverty are not the most essential and important things, and they cannot determine whether our souls can be resurrected. 

At the age of eighty-two, Tolstoy abandoned his home on a cold winter night in order to bid farewell to his old life completely, and finally died of illness at a station. He uses "Resurrection" and more importantly, life to explain to us the true essence and truly important things in life.

Book Analysis

In literary works, promiscuous women are more likely to be coveted by men than daughters from good families. 

The reason is relatively simple: they are often first-class in appearance and charming, and some are extremely talented, playing music, chess, calligraphy, painting, and tea dancing. , at least the same thing, and the most important thing is that they are definitely not like those girls from good families, who open their mouths and ask you what "lifelong" commitment you want.

You know, "commitment" is probably what men fear the most. Daughters of good families want those vows of eternal love that will last forever. 

After hearing this, the young and old men recoiled in their hearts, but they still kept saying nonsense like "Yes, yes, yes, I love you most, and I will love you forever", which made everyone very nervous. Awkward.

Women who have fallen into the world of fireworks are actually a bit like Taoist monks, and they often have a sense of emptiness that can't be overcome by the world of mortals. 

Generally speaking, this feeling is nothingness, but in fact, it also includes a straightforward concept of money, no expectations for human nature, and premature disillusionment in life. They don't seem to care at all about the everlasting oath of love. 

In other words, they have broken their "attachment". For them, casual love is the essence of the relationship between men and women. Other than that, you provide money and I make fun of it. Silver, jade, silk, silk, and satin are all the way to go.

What do Tolstoy's prostitutes look like? Of course, she was beautiful. Even in the dock, the men couldn't take their eyes off this female prisoner. 

However, Maslova's fate is not about family ruin, let alone selling her body to bury her father. Tolstoy made "ignorant love" the root of the tragedy - the girl was first deceived by the young master out of innocence and took her first night away, and then, the hope of "love" was completely shattered, the pregnant Maslova was kicked out of the foster home, and her life was difficult. 

From then on, she slid down her life little by little. After Nora left, she experienced nothing but degradation and death. In fact, even if readers can accept her "going home", I'm afraid that "home" will not be so tolerant in accepting her return.

So Maslova could only sink all the way in nineteenth-century Russia—first, she became a prostitute, and then she was involved in a murder case for no reason. This was not the worst. 

The worst thing is that as an innocent woman who only sold her smile and body, she encountered a group of judges and juries with no sense of responsibility, professionalism, or morality at the murder trial. She was about to be sentenced to death and became An "outsider" to his own destiny.

This is the beginning of Tolstoy's 400,000-word novel.

Although moral judgment is often considered stupid and powerless in literary works, for example, readers often demand that both male and female characters be loyal and have sound and perfect personalities. If they cannot do this, they may even think it is better to write them off.

Therefore, once we use reality to measure literary works, I am afraid that only fairy tales and romanticism will remain. The endings of most stories must be Butterfly Lovers and Romeo and Juliet to satisfy people who have "art" occupying the high ground.

Is Tolstoy realistic enough? As a dandy, Nekhlyudov could have walked away, married Bai Fumei, who was well-matched to his family, inherited the family real estate, and settled down to be an aristocratic young master with no worries about food and clothing, becoming a "winner in life" in the eyes of most people, but he did not.

While Maslova was being tried, the man was also judging himself. Nekhludoff asked himself, do you still remember this woman? If so, what do you remember about her? Knocking on her window at night? Possess her moment? Or imagine her pain during childbirth? Do you still love her? What can you do now for this once pure and beautiful woman in front of you?

At this time, because no one cares about the life and death of that innocent woman, the court will deport her to the wilderness of Siberia, which means letting this woman die.

Nekhlyudov felt that he was the murderer.

At the age of 17, the days when the young master played with the family's maid began to judge him. It was at this time that Nekhludoff remembered his desire to be a "good person."

Nekhludoff did not follow the routine of Eastern works and became the heartless Li Jia and the ruthless prodigal son. Tolstoy's realism suddenly became romantic at this moment. 

The rich young man was willing to run for his first girlfriend to avoid her death and pay for the crime. Redeem your soul. He suddenly became "noble" and even made up his mind: he wanted to marry her.

After reading this, many readers will probably sigh: True love!

The rich young man even risked the rest of his life in order to "resurrection" the innocent girl again.

But maybe, as Nekhludoff himself said in the book: What I want to save is not her, I am saving myself.

Someone said before that Chinese men have two major hobbies: dragging good families into trouble and persuading prostitutes to be good. Nekhludoff's knee was hit by a second arrow.

But even so, Toon didn't let him get what he wanted. Whether he resurrected himself or saved the woman who had stumbled, it was not enough to "resurrect" a person's heart. 

If people can be easily "resurrected" because they feel guilty because of the suffering of others, then, because Does the nobility of others also make people want to become better people?

What Tolstoy wanted to explore was the possibility of a person becoming a better person. No matter if you have ever lived in a hellish world. 

Men love prostitutes, maybe because they don’t have to show their sincerity, because they want to save trouble, or because prostitutes are more charming, but the reason given by Tolstoy is: that they want to clean up their innocence.

410,000 words finally "cleansed" two souls. Men blame everything on their own conscience, while women want to become another version of themselves. In short, the easiest way to be like Jesus is to make choices like Jesus.

Reading Notes

If "War and Peace" is Tolstoy's masterpiece, then "Resurrection" summarizes Tolstoy's thoughts and ideas. When I was young, I thought it was impossible to finish reading Tolstoy's books because they were so thick! But one after another, I couldn't stop reading Tolstoy's works. 

His words are so great and powerful, which moved me deeply. Every time I read them, I think about them for more than half a year.

"Resurrection" is not long. It uses the atonement process of the noble Nekhludoff to outline Tolstoy's views on life, class, religion, etc. 

Nekhludoff is the main line, and Maslova is the sideline, like the harmony of the cello and violin, unfolding their psychological activities one high and one low - shame, shame, atonement, pity, relief, and sublimation of life.

In this book, the author uses Nekhludoff to raise a sharp question: Why do social evils continue? Why can't sin be eliminated? Why do people hurt each other? How to eliminate this tragedy? These problems do not appear all at once but arise very naturally.

Nekhludoff felt that he had to do something to help Maslova. First, he had played with her in the past, and now she had fallen. 

In the final analysis, it was he who had done bad things; second, he had to help Maslova and make him feel good. , gaining pleasure and satisfaction from one's own sacrifice. This mentality is hypocritical and selfish. In the final analysis, it only makes him feel less guilty. 

But as he helped her reverse the case, came into contact with big and small bureaucrats, met all kinds of strange people in the prison, and helped more innocent people, the contradictions and conflicts in his heart intensified. 

He saw the sufferings of people in a different class from his own and thought of the passion and justice of the past. He suddenly found out how boring, empty, and corrupt his life was now. 

The people around him were so fake and noble, and their words were so empty. How utilitarian the means of love are. Nekhludoff opened his mind, the "spiritual man" awakened, the "animal man" shrank, and he began a new round of "soul purification."

But unlike the previous whims of "soul purification", this purification has been beneficial. This is because of the opportunity to contact the people at the bottom. 

Thanks to Maslova. Maslova knew that she had to serve hard labor, so instead of using Nekhludoff to get exoneration, she asked Nekhludoff to help her fellow prisoners. 

Nekhludoff worked for these people whom he had never met and had no interest in, and he gradually understood the unfairness of society and then thought about why some people can judge and punish others; why the owners of these powers cannot Compassion, sometimes even without distinction between black and white. 

From Nekhlyudov's question, readers and I have further thought about various issues and too many questions. In short, why are people so pitiful, and why do people be hostile and harm each other? If we want to continue the discussion to no end, let’s stop here.

Nekhlyudov transitioned from self-pity and self-love atonement to true compassion and understanding. He reflected on the sins and emptiness of his class, and also took action, mainly returning land to the people, hoping to improve the situation of the poor people. 

Not to mention whether these actions are understood by farmers or whether they are successful, I think the actions themselves deserve recognition. Actions are changes and are much more powerful than empty words, even if they are failed attempts. What is particularly noteworthy is that Nekhlyudov proposed the value of labor. 

The nobles did not work, thus breeding hypocrisy, exaggeration, fornication, emptiness, and boredom; the nobles relied on a violent rule to maintain the current social system and ensure that their blood-sucking lives could continue from generation to generation, so they used various means such as religion, law, and exile to eliminate " Troublemaker". 

Most people were arrested, tried, exiled, and executed not because they were truly guilty, but because they hindered the interests of the class in power. These people are isolated from the outside world and unable to work, so they are further degraded, and the innocent become guilty, and the ugly sin will be transmitted to more people. It can almost be said that all kinds of evil arise from a lack of labor. 

This point can also be seen in Romain Rolland's "Mother and Son" and Goncharov's "Oblomov". Another good example is: Britain exiled prisoners to Australia. This was a more horrific criminal law than the death penalty. However, in the New World, prisoners gained the value of labor. 

Through labor, some prisoners later became landlords and even members of society. VIP. The impact of the social environment on people is very huge!

Tolstoy criticized the aristocracy, but he did not just sing praises to the masses and the revolution. He pointed out the shortcomings of revolution and described various revolutionaries, including those who were opportunistic and those who were vain and greedy for power. 

Similarly, he also criticized the Orthodox Church, believing that the Orthodox Church was a means of maintaining rule and was not only unholy but also "anti-Christ." This kind of formalized religion is not as good as the "madman" who believes in nothing but himself. What he advocates is a kind of self-influence, self-sublimation, and the use of education and non-violent means to change society. 

Tolstoy did not propose specific measures, but he was not alone. Gandhi's non-violence and non-resistance is the best practical example. It is not perfect, but it inspires people that this is also a feasible way, as long as people are full of strength and hope. 

Regarding faith, he prefers Protestant Christianity, which means that people should have the freedom to read the Bible and understand it through their own thinking instead of relying on the authority of the church. People should eradicate all false forms, understand and purify themselves, and be sincere.

Rooted in the Christian beliefs mentioned above, Tolstoy put forward the following two points to help reduce sin:

First, first, admit that everyone in the world is sinful, including yourself. You are guilty, so you cannot punish others or correct their sins. People need to maintain their true nature, that is, listen to the call of their conscience, respond to the call of their heart, and be consistent in their words and deeds. 

If people cannot match their words and deeds, they will definitely be hypocritical, and more evil will occur. Therefore, if you want to make the world a better place, you must first cleanse yourself and do practical things. 

Do one thing after another. Don’t expect others to be grateful or understand your contribution, and don’t expect what you have done. All are correct and effective. You can only do what you can do. You are the only one walking this road. Loneliness needs to be endured.

Second, on the other hand, people need to maintain their faith in human beings, believe that there is a little fire in others' hearts, and not just look at their appearance. 

For example, Nekhludoff did not know about Maslova's inner changes in prison, so when Maslova was expelled from the hospital, Nekhludoff thought that she had seduced the doctor and had fallen again. But the reality was the opposite. The doctor wanted to possess Maslova, but she resisted. She had changed her mind. 

It is completely impossible for people to communicate and understand each other, but just remember that despite all the ugly things in this world, human society can survive because people love each other after all. 

This kind of love and compassion can be seen in every corner of society, even in prisons. This kind of compassion is immortal because it is the glory of human nature. Even if 99% of human nature is bad, with that 1% compassion, there is hope for human existence. This is like Pandora's box, so many evils have escaped, but hope has been left, and mankind can continue.

The above is the main line generated from Nekhludoff's perspective and psychology. The sideline of Maslova's atonement and forgiveness is another psychological process. 

If the former is mainly a discussion of society and humanity in a broad sense, the latter is a discussion of the conflict between opposites (between the sexes and between classes), and also explains what "love" is.

Maslova was kicked out of the manor and became a prostitute. She was involved in other people's crimes for no reason and was wrongly judged. In the final analysis, she was possessed and abandoned by Nekhludoff. Maslova is a typical victim of the aristocracy. 

She was taken in and raised by the aristocracy because the ladies felt that life was empty and boring, and it would be better to raise a little girl for fun, instead of truly loving and pitying the child. 

Nekhludoff took possession of her as casually as picking a small flower. From beginning to end, Maslova had no choice but to endure all kinds of unfairness and harm done to her. Although she has experienced so many things, Maslova still retains a kind of innocence and kindness. 

She speaks without sophistry and has compassion for the people around her (pity is unconscious. She may not know why she wants to help others, she just feels that " This old lady is very nice, really nice”). 

In the end, she truly forgave Nekhludoff. She understood that even if they were united, they would not be happy, because she felt that Nekhludoff was guilty rather than loving. She accepted her fate, regardless of whether she was innocent or guilty, and she told Nekhludoff not to follow him anymore because he had his own life. 

Mary Magdalene in the Bible is said to have been a prostitute, but later followed Jesus and became a loyal believer. She was later revered as one of the saints. Prostitute and saint in one, just like virgin pregnancy, there is an obvious contradiction, but from another perspective, it is not contradictory. 

Because everyone is guilty, prostitutes are just as guilty as everyone else. But a prostitute with a kind heart, like a pure child, possesses a kind of human power. Compassion is not limited to a person's identity. Maslova is a saint with a "dirty identity" but a pure spirit (compared to those vain noble ladies). 

There is not much written about her in the book, but it is enough to see her pity, her patience, her compassion for others, her living faith, her forgiveness of Nekhludoff, and the faith rekindled in her heart... Love is not just the love between men and women. Love is the invisible compassion and tenderness that exists in people's hearts. It is the power of life.

After reading "War and Peace" and then "Resurrection", the only novel left was "Anna Karenina". I couldn't help but feel reluctant to read it, but I didn't want to finish reading this great author's book so quickly. 

As an aside, I think the works of writers with humanitarian ideas such as Tolstoy and Hugo are not suitable for young people. To put it another way, after reading it and gaining life experience, the feeling will be different.

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